243 Kiianmaa K, Stenius K, Sinclair JD. Determinants of alcohol preference in the AA and ANA rat lines selected for differential ethanol intake. 242 Kiianmaa K, Nurmi M, Nykanen I, Sinclair JD. Effect of ethanol on extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferrring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats. 241 Kiianmaa K, Andersson K, Fuxe K. On the role of ascending dopamine systems in the control of voluntary ethanol intake and ethanol intoxication. 217 Janak PH, Chang JY, Woodward DJ. Neuronal spike activity in the nucleus accumbens of behaving rats during ethanol self-administration. 213 Imperato A, Di Chiara G. Preferential stimulation of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens of freely moving rats by ethanol. 210 Hungund BL, Basavarajappa BS. Distinct differences in the cannabinoid receptor binding in the brain of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice, selected for their differences in voluntary ethanol consumption. 197 Hölter SM, Spanagel R. Effects of opiate antagonist treatment on the alcohol deprivation effect in long-term ethanol-experienced rats. 147 Füllgrabe M, Vengeliene V, Spanagel R. Influence of age at drinking onset on the alcohol deprivation effect and stress-induced drinking in female rats.
Because of the mutual interaction between anxiety and alcohol, it is possible that anxiety disorders promote the development of alcoholism and, vice versa, that alcoholism promotes the development of anxiety disorders. Epidemiological investigations addressing the issue of primary versus secondary onset have so far yielded inconsistent results. Recent investigations differentiating between subtypes of anxiety disorders have not demonstrated a consistent temporal pattern for alcoholism in relation to these disorders . Epidemiological data have indicated a temporal relationship underlying comorbidity between alcoholism and panic and phobic disorders, particularly social phobia . Thus panic and social phobia are predictors of subsequent alcohol problems among adolescents and young adults, but they rarely occur after the onset of alcoholism. physiological dependence on alcohol These findings are consistent with the notion that alcohol drinking may be used to self-medicate social phobia, and may therefore serve as a salient risk factor for the subsequent onset of problem-drinking behavior. Findings from preclinical studies demonstrating that midbrain DA A10 neurons play an essential role in the acquisition of primary alcohol reinforcement processes have recently been translated to humans via PET measurements. Boileau et al. examined healthy volunteers in a PET scanner following alcohol ingestion using the selective and potent DA D2/D3 receptor antagonist raclopride. They found a significant reduction in raclopride binding potential in the NAC, indicative of increased extracellular DA. The magnitude of the change in raclopride binding correlated with the psychostimulant effects of alcohol .
A. An Animal Model to Study Different Phases of Alcohol Consumption
However, DAergic activity is regulated not only via a long-loop negative GABAergic feedback system and GABAergic interneurons within the VTA but also by a variety of other systems. Glutamatergic activity in particular also seems to control the mesolimbic DAergic pathway . Glutamatergic projections from the PFC, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, laterodorsal tegmental nucleus, and lateral hypothalamus feed into the VTA . In addition, glutamatergic projections from the PFC, hippocampus, amygdala, and paraventricular nucleus feed into the NAC, and glutamate release from any one of these projection terminals can act on ionotropic glutamate receptors in the NAC shell to induce DA release .
Which of the following is a psychological risk factor for addiction?
Reviews of the psychosocial risk factors of adolescent alcohol and drug use suggest that the highest risks can be summarized as: 1) psychological functioning, 2) family environment, 3) peer relationships, and 4) stressful life events.
Although this finding has recently been replicated , no final judgement on this pharmacogenetic discovery will be possible for several years. Nevertheless, given the fact that our century is dominated by the belief that personalized medicine will power further biomedical developments, the study of Oslin et al. has already marked this shift in paradigms. Despite the promise of pharmacogenetics in identifying treatment responders, there have, to date, been very few success stories in any aspect of medicine. How can developments in preclinical medication research be translated to humans? In the field of research into medications for alcohol addiction, a roadmap for translational research has recently been provided by Markus Heilig and his research group at the NIAAA . LY suppressed spontaneous alcohol craving, improved general well-being, blunted craving induced by a stress challenge procedure, and attenuated concomitant cortisol responses. In addition, it was shown that LY reduced BOLD responses elicited by alcohol-related cues . These findings indicate the potential efficacy of this drug as an anti-craving and anti-relapse medication. This series of experiments represents a genuine translational approach to the linking of preclinical work and clinical efficacy, a link which could otherwise only be established through the performance of time-consuming and cost-intensive phase II/III studies. Two pharmaceutical companies are now exploiting these positive results in full-scale clinical trials .
I take omega-3 fatty acids every day for the past year and it helped me go threw a ruff year of studying. A. Well Anthony, almost all depression had some known dependency on something. But its regular dependency and frequency increment or decrement will differ a lot. One kind of depression physiological dependence on alcohol like seasonal affective disorder is where every individual remains depressed every year at the same time, which may be due to seasonal changes like winter and summer. In SAD the depression arrives every year at the same time and it seems to be arrival of depression dependent on the season.
Moreover, after receiving some of these medications, animals exhibited lower relapse vulnerability and/or a reduced amount consumed once drinking was -initiated (Ciccocioppo et al. 2003; Finn et al. 2007; Funk et al. 2007; Walker and Koob 2008). Indeed, clinical investigations similarly have reported that a history of multiple detoxifications can impact responsiveness to and efficacy of various pharmacotherapeutics used to manage alcohol dependence (Malcolm et al. 2000, 2002, 2007). Future studies should focus on elucidating neural mechanisms underlying sensitization of symptoms that contribute to a negative emotional state resulting from repeated withdrawal experience. Such studies will undoubtedly reveal important insights that spark development of new and more effective treatment strategies for relapse prevention as well as aid people in controlling alcohol consumption that too often spirals out of control to excessive levels. More direct evidence supporting increased alcohol consumption as a consequence of repeated withdrawal experience comes from animal studies linking dependence models with self-administration procedures. For example, rats exposed to chronic alcohol treatment interspersed with repeated withdrawal episodes consumed significantly more alcohol than control animals under free-choice, unlimited access conditions (Rimondini et al. 2002, 2003; Sommer et al. 2008). Similar results have been reported in mice, with voluntary alcohol consumption assessed using a limited access schedule (Becker and Lopez 2004; Dhaher et al. 2008; Finn et al. 2007; Lopez and Becker 2005). Further, the amount of work mice (Lopez et al. 2008) and rats (Brown et al. 1998) were willing to expend in order to receive alcohol reinforcement was significantly increased following repeated withdrawal experience. This suggests that the reinforcing value of alcohol may be enhanced as a result of experiencing repeated opportunities to respond for access to alcohol in the context of withdrawal.
An increasing number of laboratories now have the capability to monitor simultaneously the extracellular activity of 100+ single neurons in freely moving animals. This paradigm, known as multielectrode recording, is revolutionizing systems neuroscience by enabling the visualization of the function of entire neural circuits . Taken together, over the last 20 years it has been demonstrated that ethanol acts directly on membrane receptors and ion channels. The subunit composition of glycine receptors and other receptors is also critical in the response to ethanol. Thus α1-containing glycine receptors appear to be more sensitive to low concentrations of ethanol than α2-containing receptors .
What is an example of psychological dependence?
Psychological dependence is a term that describes the emotional or mental components of substance use disorder, such as strong cravings for the substance or behavior and difficulty thinking about anything else.
A. Alcoholism is the high carve for drinking without caring for negative results it will have on physical, mental, emotional and social life. A binge drinker who continues to drink even though the problem has started in his normal life will lead to alcohol abuse and he may start the journey for alcoholism. In alcohol dependence the drinker steps up from the alcohol abuse and the crave increases in spite of the biggest problem on head. Physical dependence alone, meaning the development of a withdrawal syndrome upon abrupt discontinuation of the drug, is not evidence of addiction. Physical dependence occurs over the same time course as tolerance develops to the adverse effects of the opioid analgesics, and is the result of changes in the numbers and function of opioid neuroreceptors in the presence of exogenous opioid. Clinical studies indicate that baclofen, a stereoselective GABAB receptor agonist, may be a useful new drug in the treatment of patients with alcohol problems. Following promising findings from a pilot open study performed in a small sample of selected patients, the efficacy of baclofen was recently evaluated in alcohol-dependent patients in a double-blind randomized controlled study .
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